3-D Sound References

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The following references provide a good set of entry points for the printed literature on spatial audio. Additional useful information can be found from links to spatial audio on the World Wide Web.

  1. Begault, D. (1994). 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia (Academic Press, Boston, MA, 1994). A clear and comprehensive presentation of 3-D audio principles and current technology.
  2. Berg, R. E. and D. G. Stork (1982). The Physics of Sound (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ). An inviting exposition of acoustics with a minimum of mathematics.
  3. Blauert, J. (1983). Spatial Hearing (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA). The standard reference on the psychophysics of three-dimensional hearing.
  4. Bracewell, R. N. (1986). The Fourier Transform and its Applications, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York). A standard reference for Fourier analysis.
  5. Brown, C. P. (1996). "Modeling the Elevation Characteristics of the Head-Related Impulse Response," Technical Report No. 13, NSF Grant No. IRI-9402246, Dept. of Elec. Engr., San Jose State Univ., San Jose, CA. Develops an accurate and efficient DSP model.
  6. Carlile, Simon (1996). Virtual Auditory Space: Generation and Applications (Chapman and Hall, New York. Contains outstanding chapters surveying the physics and psychophysics of 3-D auditory perception and the synthesis of spatial sound.
  7. Duda, R. O. (1993). "Modeling head related transfer functions," in Proc. Twenty-Seventh Annual Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (Asilomar, CA). Briefly surveys the major approaches used to date.
  8. Genuit, K. (1984). "A model for the description of outer-ear transmission characteristics," Doctor of Engineeing dissertation (in German), Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University, Aachen, Germany. An ambitious attempt to develop signal-processing models of head-related transfer functions from head- and outer-ear geometry. Some of the concepts are incorporated in the binaural mixing console manufactured by Head Acoustics.
  9. Han, H. L. (1994). "Measuring a dummy head in search of pinna cues," J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 42, Nos. 1/2, pp. 15-37, January. One of several studies of the nature of the elevation cues produced by the pinna.
  10. Handel, S. (1989). Listening (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA). A recommended introductory textbook on the psychology of hearing; includes non-mathematical chapters on the physics of sound production, propagation and diffraction, plus a lucid chapter on auditory neurophysiology.
  11. Mills, A. W. (1972). "Auditory localization," in J. V. Tobias, Ed., Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II, pp. 303-348 (Academic Press, NY). An excellent summary of the mechanisms and psychoacoustic cues for sound localization.
  12. Morse, P. M. and K. U. Ingard (1968). Theoretical Acoustics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ). An advanced but very clear textbook on the physics of sound.
  13. Oppenheim, A. V. and R. W. Schafer (1989). Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ). A standard and widely respected textbook on digital signal processing (DSP).
  14. Steiglitz, K. (1996). A Digital Signal Processing Primer (Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA). A clear introduction to DSP, particularly suitable for audio applications.
  15. Wright, M. (1996). "3-D Audio: Above and behind you or moving low left to right," EDN, pp. 87-88,90,92,94,96,99, June. A trade publication that accurately summarizes current commercialproducts and technical trends.